Monday, July 12, 2010

Cancer Cells

Post you research findings in the Comments Section (include qns and group members' names).

Qn 1: What are Cancer Cells?

Qn 2: List the top 5 cancer in Singapore/World.

Qn 3: Describe some of the current treatment of cancer.

Qn 4: Is the usage of handphone and an wireless environment safe? Discuss.


  1. See To Yu Xiang’s Group Report, Part 1

    Post you research findings in the Comments Section (include questions and group members' names).

    Qn 1: What are Cancer Cells?

    Cancer cell are clones from a single ancestral cell, they are abnormal cells which have uncontrolled growth. A cell can become a cancer cell because of damage to DNA.
    Cancer cells are different to normal cells in several ways.
    1.)They don't die if they move to another part of the body. 2.)Cancer cells don't stop reproducing. 3.)Cancer cells don't obey signals from other cells. 4.)Cancer cells don't stick together. 5.)Cancer cells don't specialise, but stay immature
    Report done by Johannan Teo Yong Ren, s1-09, 22
    Cancer cells are a group of cells that display uncontrolled growth (division beyond normal limits), invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis(spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood).
    Report done by Tim Yap Ming En, s1-09, 23

    Qn 2: List the top 5 cancer in Singapore/World.

    In Singapore :
    1) Breast cancer
    Colo-rectum cancer
    Lung cancer
    Prostate cancer
    Liver cancer

    In the world :
    Lung cancer
    Breast cancer
    Stomach cancer
    Prostate cancer
    Skin cancer
    Report done by Rayner Tan Xue Wen, s1-09, 21

  2. See To Yu Xiang's Group Report, Part 2

    Qn 3: Describe some of the current treatment of cancer.

    There are four standard methods of treatment for cancer: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy and biologic therapy. Clinical trials may be an option for some as cancer treatment who meet certain study criteria. Others may choose alternative cancer treatments, which are usually not FDA-approved and often given in locations outside of the U.S.

    Methods of Treatment
    Surgery: Surgery can be used to prevent, treat, stage (determine how advanced the cancer is), and diagnose cancer. In relation to cancer treatment, surgery is done to remove tumors or as much of the cancerous tissue as possible. It is often performed in conjunction with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
    For those whose cancer is not treatable, palliative surgery may be an option to relieve pain that may be caused by the cancer. Palliative surgery is not intended to treat or cure the cancer, or even to prolong life, but more to lessen discomfort.

    Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses of drugs to eliminate cancer cells. Unlike surgery, chemotherapy affects the entire body, not just a specific part. It works by targeting rapidly multiplying cancer cells. Unfortunately, other types of cells in our bodies also multiply at high rates, like hair follicle cells and the cells that line our stomachs. This is why chemo can cause side effects like hair loss and an upset stomach.

    Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses certain types of energy to shrink tumors or eliminate cancer cells. It works by damaging a cancer cell's DNA, making it unable to multiply. Cancer cells are highly sensitive to radiation and typically die when treated. Nearby healthy cells can be damaged as well, but are resilient and are able to fully recover.

    Biologic or Targeted Therapy:
    Biologic therapy is a term for drugs that target characteristics of cancerous tumors. Some types of targeted therapies work by blocking the biological processes of tumors that allow tumors to thrive and grow. Other types of therapies cut off the blood supply to the tumor, causing it to basically starve and die because of a lack of blood.
    Targeted therapy is used in select types of cancer and is not available for everyone. It is given in conjunction with other cancer treatments.

    Report done by, Niklaus Teo Kuo Shien, s1-09, 19

    Qn 4: Is the usage of handphone and a wireless environment safe? Discuss.

    Scientists and researchers can’t be so sure if the often use of handphone and a wireless environment , but, they can’t be so sure either if it does not affects the brains. But researches have shown results that people that use handphone more and also stay in a wireless environment will have a higher chance of getting brain cancer.
    How does a handphone heightens the risk of developing brain cancer, when you are answering a call from someone, there will be frequencies/waves as the handphone is receiving signals for the person to communicate with the other person on the other end of the line. Holding a phone directly beside your brain (this is what normal people do when they are answering a call) will get you a signal into your acoustic nerve. This is also equivalent to microwaving your brain cells (Haha! Though no one microwaves their brain...XD) . The waves/frequencies might activate the cancer cells in your brain, thus causing you to develop brain cancer.
    A solution to solving this problem, is to text more, or connect an earphone to your phone, and use it when answering calls, so as to lessen the chances of developing brain cancer.
    Conclusion : Even though scientists have not confirmed whether the frequent usage of cellphones and staying in a wireless environment long can pose as a serious health threat, but do you want to take the risk? If you don’t, you should start texting more, if not, use earphones when answering calls!
    Report done by See To Yu Xiang, s1-09, 20

  3. What are cancer cells?
    1.Cancer cells is the result of uncontrolled cell growth. Our bodies are composed of trillions of cells, all working together. In cancer, one of those cells stops paying attention to the normal signals that tell cells to grow, stop growing or even to die. Cancer cells still share many of the same needs and properties of normal cells but they become independent of the controls that make our body function smoothly. The process by which a normal cell changes into one that behaves so abnormally can take a long time and is often triggered by outside influences.

  4. Question 1: It is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer cells can grow, divide, and invade normal tissue in the body.

    Question 2:
    Top 5 Cancer in the WORLD
    Lung Cancer
    Breast Cancer
    Stomach Cancer
    Prostate Cancer
    Skin Cancer

    Top 5 Cancer in SINGAPORE for MENS
    Colo-rectum Cancer
    Lung Cancer
    Prostate Cancer
    Liver Cancer
    Stomach Cancer

    Top 5 Cancer in Singapore for WOMENS
    Breast Cancer
    Colo-rectum Cancer
    Lung Cancer
    Corpus Uteri Cancer
    Ovary Cancer

  5. Question 3:

    It is the use of chemical agents to destroy cancer cells and is a mainstay in the treatment of malignancies. A major advantage of chemotherapy is its ability to treat widespread or metastatic cancer, whereas surgery and radiation therapy are limited to treating cancers that are confined to specific areas.

    The goal of all chemotherapy drugs is to kill the cancerous cells, while using a dose that causes the least harm the body's healthy cells. To achieve this goal, scientists tried to identify characteristics that are unique to cancer cells and are not found on normal tissue.

    Radiation Therapy

    Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to shrink tumors and kill cancer cells. X-rays and charged particles are types of radiation used for cancer treatment. The radiation may be delivered by a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy, also called brachytherapy). About half of all cancer patients receive some type of radiation therapy sometime during the course of their treatment.

    Radiation therapy kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA (the molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next). Radiation therapy can either damage DNA directly or create charged particles (free radicals) within the cells that can in turn damage the DNA. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die.

    Side effects?
    Radiation therapy can cause both early (acute) and late (chronic) side effects. Acute side effects occur during treatment, and chronic side effects occur months or even years after treatment ends. The side effects that develop depend on the area of the body being treated, the dose given per day, the total dose given, the patient’s general medical condition, and other treatments given at the same time.

    Note: Radiation therapy can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects.

    Source of information on Chemotherapy:
    Source of information on Radiation therapy:

    Cancer surgery

    How do they do it?
    The surgeon usually does this by cutting into your body and removing the cancer along with some surrounding healthy tissue to ensure that all of the cancer is removed. Your surgeon may also remove some lymph nodes in the area to determine if the cancer has spread.

    Question 4:
    It can give us tumors, which can lead to brain cancer.
    The microwaves (radiation) will damage the nerves in the brain.
    Radiation from phones, bluetooth, and other wireless devices could damage the brain.
    We do not know if it is a problem to the general public.
    Suggest texting or use earpiece to reduce risk of brain cancer.

    The number and duration of calls.
        * The amount of cell phone traffic at a given time.
        * The distance from the nearest cellular base station.
        * The quality of the cellular transmission.
        * The size of the handset.
        * For older phones, how far the antenna is extended.
        * Whether or not a hands-free device is used.

    What parts of the body may be affected during cell phone use?

    There is concern that RF energy produced by cell phones may affect the brain and other tissues in the head because hand-held cell phones are usually held close to the head. Researchers have focused on whether RF energy can cause malignant brain tumors, such as gliomas, as well as benign tumors, such as acoustic neuromas and meningiomas. The salivary glands also may be exposed to RF energy from cell phones held close to the head.

    Group members: Stacey Yip, Michelle Dapito, Lee Si Yuan, Preston Ngoui, Victor Ang, Chio Jia Le

  6. Q1) Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits), invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood). It is any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream

    Q2) List the top 5 cancer in the world.
    -Lung Cancer
    -Breast Cancer
    -Stomach Cancer
    -Prostate Cancer
    -Skin Cancer

    Q3)They are surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
    - A surgical operation to remove a solid tumor is the most common form of cancer treatment. It offers the best chance of cure for many cancers that have not spread.
    - Radiotherapy aims to get rid of cancer by killing cancer cells in and around a specific tumor. It works by directing a stream of high-energy particles (radiation) onto the affected tissue, and can be used to treat solid and non-solid tumors.
    - This form of treatment uses drugs that can destroy cancer cells. There are dozens of different chemotherapy drugs. The choice of which to use depends on the type of cancer, its grade and its stage. Doctors may also take into account the patient’s age and overall health. Two or more chemotherapy drugs are often used together; this is called combination chemotherapy.

    Q4) It is not confirmed. The cell phone "microwaves" the brain. espacilly when used more than 10 years. In a short period of time, like 5 years or less, it will not be much of an impact.

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  8. List top 5 cancer in the world.
    Lung Cancer
    Breast Cancer
    Stomach Cancer
    Prostate Cancer
    Skin Cancer

    Top 5 cancer in Singapore

    Corpus Uteri

  9. What are some of the current treatment?
    3a. Chemotherapy
    Radiation Therapy
    Proton Therapy
    Angogenesis Inhibitors Therapy
    Biological Therapy
    Bone Marrow Transplantation
    Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
    Gene Therapy
    Hyperthermia Therapy
    Laser Treatment
    Photodynamic Therapy
    Apoptosis Therapy
    Targeted Cancer Therapies

  10. Is the usage of handphone or wireless environment safe?
    It is not proved yet. But does not mean that it is safe.Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health.