Sunday, July 18, 2010


This video reviews the benefits of cord blood stem cells and the differences between cord blood stem cells and embryonic or adult stem cells. Focus on the differences between embryonic and adult stem cells.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Kingdoms of Living Things

Kingdoms of Living Things.

Please visit the website for information on the 5 kingdoms of living things.

1. Kingdom Monera
2. Kingdom Protista
3. Kingdom Fungi
4. Kingdom Plantae
5. Kingdom Animalia

Monday, July 12, 2010

Cancer Cells

Post you research findings in the Comments Section (include qns and group members' names).

Qn 1: What are Cancer Cells?

Qn 2: List the top 5 cancer in Singapore/World.

Qn 3: Describe some of the current treatment of cancer.

Qn 4: Is the usage of handphone and an wireless environment safe? Discuss.

DNA Extraction at HOME!

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

Group: Rayner, Niklaus, Tim , See Toh, Johanan(Red Blood Cells

Organelle in Red Blood Cell are cytoplasm, cell membrane.
Cytoplasm - rich in hemoglobin, which is an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the blood's red colour. It contains simple protein and iron pigment. It will turn redder when there is more oxygen.
Cell membrane - It aid in regulating their surface deformability, flexibility, adhesion to other cells and immune recognition. It also have three layers.
(Has no nucleus to maximize space to carry oxygen. Human red blood cells do reproduce by cell division. They are produced in the bone marrow. Immature erythrocytes have a nucleus but mature erythrocytes have no nucleus.)
Function of cell
-Controls pH. The pH of blood must remain in the range 6.8 to 7.4, otherwise it begins to damage cells.
- Transfer Oxygen to different parts of the body
- Transfer waste gas( carbon dioxide) to the lungs

Group: YuChong, Naveena, Cherin, Jun Wei, Benjamin, Min Suk

Question 1,2 & 3
1.Cell wall-protects the cell and regulates the life cycle of the plant organism.

2. Chloroplast-The most important characteristic of plants is their ability to photosynthesize, in effect, to make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy. This process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts.

3. Endoplasmic recticulum-manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell.

4. Golgi Apparatus-is the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products. It modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export as outside of the cell.

5. Mitochondria-breaks down carbohydrate and sugar molecules to provide energy, particularly when light isn't available for the chloroplasts to produce energy.

6. Nucleus- Controls all activities in the cell.

7. Cell membrane-Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.

8. Vacuole-Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant.

Root Hair Cell

Preston's Group

a) There are 5 organelles found in a root hair cell. The 5 organelles are the nucleus, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, vacuole and the cell wall.
b) The functions of the cell is to absorb water and mineral ions from soil. The projecting section has large surface area for absorption of water and minerals from soil water, there are no chloroplasts. The nucleus stores the DNA of the cell and it controls all the activities in the cell. Cellular activities takes place in the cytoplasm. The cell membrane controls the movement of substance in and out of the cell. It is a selectively permeable membrane because it allows only some substance to pass through. The large central vacuole is filled with a fluid (sap fluid: contain dissolved sugars and amino acid) and is surrounded by a sap membrane or tonoplast. It provides structural support and maintains turgor pressure. The cell wall gives the plant its shape and has a fully permeable structure (allows all substance to pass through).
c) Root hairs form an important surface over which plants absorb m
ost of their water and nutrients. They are also directly involved in the formation of root nodules in legume plants.

They have a large surface area, relative to the other cells, that helps them absorb water and minerals more efficiently.

Information sourced from: Wikipedia, reference papers
Pictures sourced from:

Pictures of root hair cells:

Muscle Cell: By Jonan, Davina, Hardy, Jun Hong, Chris

Organelles present in the muscle cell: Mitochondria, Myofibrils, Nucleus, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum.

Functions: Release energy and initiate movement.

The purpose of muscle is to regulate/initiate movement (using Adenosine triphosphate aka. ATP), they have larger mitochondria's so to produce a larger quantity of ATP. To completely oxidize carbohydrates an organelle called Mitochondria is required and so muscle cells have many of these.

Monday, July 5, 2010

Specialised Cells Research

1. Students to research on one of the following cells assigned to you (e.g., root hair cell, green leaf cell, human muscle cell and human red blood cell), and get ready the following answers by next lesson.

Area of focus:
a. What are the organelles found in the cell?

b. What are the functions of these organelles?

c. Why are these functions of the organelles important to the living cell?

Interactive Websites for Learning (Animal & Plant Cell)

1. CELLS alive! represents 30 years of capturing film and computer-enhanced images of living cells andorganisms for education and medical research.
CELLS alive! Interactive Animal and Plant Cell:

2. is a web site for educational learning and having fun at the same time.
Interactive Game on Cell Organelles: